• What precaution should I take in my First Trimester ?

    To make your first trimester healthy, you need to take certain precautions. These are listed below:

    • Supplements: In your first trimester, it’s healthy to take necessary supplements like calcium, folic acid, vitamin D, magnesium, probiotics, fish oil etc. as they fulfil the necessary nutrition requirements for both the mother and the baby.
    • Rest: Fatigue is commonly experienced during the first trimester which makes it all the more important for you to take rest.
    • Food: The food you eat during the first trimester of your pregnancy must be really healthy. Include fresh leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes, fish and seafood, dairy items like yoghurt, chickpeas, lentils, eggs etc. in your diet and stay away from processed food items. Also, keep yourself hydrated all through the day.
    • Exercise: While you are advised to rest during your first trimester, light exercising is also important. However, you must consult your gynaecologist before you start exercising.
  • What Are Prenatal Vitamins ?

    Prenatal vitamins are supplements made for pregnant women to give their bodies the vitamins and minerals needed for a healthy pregnancy.

    Folic acid

    If getting pregnant is a possibility for you, you should take folic acid. It can prevent birth defects that affect the baby’s brain and spinal cord.

  • What vitamins and minerals do I need during pregnancy ?

    During pregnancy you need folic acid, iron, calcium, vitamin D, choline, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, and vitamin C.

  • How many extra calories do I need in pregnancy ?

    During the first trimester with one fetus, usually no extra calories are needed. In the second trimester, you will need an extra 340 calories per day, and in the third trimester, about 450 extra calories a day. To get the extra calories during the day, have healthy snacks on hand, such as nuts, yogurt, and fresh fruit.

  • What are the benefits of exercise during pregnancy ?

    Regular exercise during pregnancy benefits you and your fetus in these key ways:

    Reduces back pain, Eases constipation, May decrease your risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery, Promotes healthy weight gain during pregnancy and Improves your overall general fitness and strengthens your heart and blood vessels.

  • When will I feel my baby move ?

    Your baby’s first movements (called “fetal quickening”) will usually occur between 18 and 22 weeks, though some women feel movement prior. Most women describe these movements as “flutters” or “bubbles.

  • What to avoid during Pregnancy ?

    Throughout your pregnancy, you must avoid smoking or smoke infested places, alcohol, and if you eat meat, make sure it’s properly cleaned and cooked. Only pasteurized dairy products are advised during pregnancy. If you love your coffee, might be wise to cut it down to 2 cups a day!

  • What causes back pain during pregnancy ?

    You can blame your growing uterus for your aching back. Your expanding uterus shifts your center of gravity and stretches out and weakens your abdominal muscles. This changes your posture and puts a strain on your back. Plus, the extra weight you’re carrying means more work for your muscles and increased stress on your joints. This is why your back may feel worse at the end of the day.

  • Do hormones contribute to back pain ?

    Yes, pregnancy hormones can contribute to back pain. To prepare for the passage of the baby through the birth canal, a hormone relaxes the ligaments in the joints of your pelvis to make them more flexible. Back pain can occur if the joints become too flexible.

  • What if I have spotting during early pregnancy ?

    Many women who spot during early pregnancy assume they have had a miscarriage, but that isn’t always the case. In fact, approximately 30 percent of women will spot in the first trimester and go on to have a healthy pregnancy. If you do notice spotting, notify your doctor just in case.


  • What is infertility ?

    Infertility is defined as not getting pregnant after 1 year of having regular sexual intercourse without using birth control. If you are older than 35, an evaluation is recommended after 6 months of trying. If you are older than 40, talk with your obstetrician-gynecologist (ob-gyn) now about an evaluation.

  • What causes infertility ?

    The most common cause of female infertility is a problem with ovulation. The most common cause of male infertility is a problem with sperm cells and how they function. Other factors that may affect fertility include:

    • Age
    • Lifestyle
    • Health Conditions

    Sometimes no cause is found. This is called unexplained infertility.

  • How does age affect fertility ?

    For healthy couples in their 20s or early 30s, the chance that a woman will get pregnant is about 25 to 30 percent in any single menstrual cycle. This percentage starts to decline in a woman’s early 30s. By age 40, a woman’s chance of getting pregnant drops to less than 10 percent per menstrual cycle. A man’s fertility also declines with age, but not as predictably.

  • How can lifestyle affect fertility ?

    Women who are underweight, overweight, or exercise too much may have a harder time getting pregnant. In women, smoking and drinking alcohol at moderate or heavy levels may reduce fertility. In men, smoking, heavy drinking, and substance abuse can reduce sperm count and movement.

  • How can health conditions affect fertility ?

    In women, several health problems can affect fertility, including:

    • Problems with the reproductive organs or hormones
    • Scarring or blockages of the fallopian tubes (from past sexually transmitted infections [STIs] or endometriosis)
    • Problems with the thyroid gland or pituitary gland

    In men, infertility can be caused when the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles are blocked.

  • What treatment options are available for infertility ?

    Your treatment options will depend on the type of problem found. Recommendations may include:

    • Lifestyle changes
    • Surgery, or
    • Medication

    Some treatments may be combined. In some cases, infertility can be successfully treated even if no cause is found.

  • What lifestyle changes may help improve my chances for pregnancy ?

    Staying at a healthy weight and eating a healthy diet can be helpful for both men and women with infertility. If you and your male partner smoke, use drugs, or drink alcohol, you should stop.

  • What is Assisted Reproduction ?

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. ART usually involves in vitro fertilization (IVF). In IVF, sperm is combined with the egg in a laboratory, and the embryo is transferred to the uterus. IVF is done for the following causes of infertility:

    • Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes that cannot be treated with surgery
    • Severe endometriosis
    • Primary ovarian insufficiency
    • Some male infertility factors
    • Unexplained infertility


  • What Is Menopause ?

    Menopause occurs a year after a woman's last menstrual period and marks the end of fertility. It is not a disease or disorder. It is a naturally occurring process that every woman experiences.

  • What Causes Menopause ?

    In most cases, menopause is a result of the natural aging process, but it has other causes. Certain surgical procedures, cancer treatments, and rare ovarian conditions can also trigger it.

  • When can I expect to experience menopause ?

    Women are usually in their late 40s or early 50s when the menopause transition starts. However, an earlier menopause can be the result of surgery, cancer treatment, or family genetics.

  • What are the symptoms of menopause ?

    The hormone changes that happen around menopause affect every woman differently. Some of these changes may lead to:

    • Irregular periods
    • Hot flashes
    • Trouble sleeping
    • Vaginal dryness
    • Sexual problems
    • Mood changes
    • Forgetfulness
    • Weight gain
    • Headaches
    • Joint aches and pain
  • Can menopause cause changes in a woman's voice ?

    The majority of women do not experience a voice change during menopause, although this may be a problem for some.

  • Does menopause increase risk of heart disease ?

    Yes. After menopause, women are more likely to have cardiovascular problems, like heart attacks and strokes. Changes in estrogen levels may be part of the cause, but so is getting older.

  • Does menopause cause bone loss ?

    Lower estrogen around the time of menopause leads to bone loss in women. Bone loss can cause bones to weaken, which can cause bones to break more easily. When bones weaken a lot, the condition is called osteoporosis.

    To keep your bones strong, women need weight-bearing exercise, such as walking, climbing stairs, or using weights. You can also protect bone health by eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, or if needed, taking calcium and vitamin D supplements.

  • What can I do to improve mood swings from menopause ?

    Getting enough sleep and staying physically active may help prevent mood swings. You can also try learning new ways to deal with stress, like meditating or journaling. If you need somebody to talk to, consider joining a support group or seeing a therapist.

  • Do women have sexual problems after menopause?

    Yes, problems with sexual function occur in women of all ages. These include problems with sexual interest, arousal, orgasm function, and pain.

Menstrual Disorders

  • What is a normal menstrual cycle ?

    A menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of bleeding of one menstrual period to the first day of bleeding of the next period. Most teens have a menstrual cycle that lasts between 21 and 45 days. A typical period lasts 2 to 7 days, with the heaviest bleeding in the first 3 days.

  • What is abnormal menstrual bleeding ?

    Heavy bleeding is not normal and may need treatment if:

    You have to change your tampon or pad more than once every 1 to 2 hours, Your period lasts more than 7 days, You or a family member have a problem with blood clotting or You feel dizzy or faint.

  • What causes abnormal periods ?

    Some causes of abnormal periods may include:

    • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
    • Bleeding disorders
    • Eating disorders or extreme exercise
    • Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs)
    • A growth in the uterus, such as a polyp
    • Hormonal problems, such as a problem with ovulation or with the thyroid gland
  • What causes pain in periods ?

    During your period, your uterus contracts. Your uterus also releases natural chemicals called prostaglandins. These chemicals can cause cramps.

    Period pain also can be caused by medical conditions, including

    • Endometriosis
    • Cysts in the ovaries
    • Adenomyosis
    • Fibroids

    Period pain that is caused by a medical condition may get worse over time.

  • What are some self care tips for period pain ?

    You may find it helpful to try:

    Exercising regularly throughout each month,taking a warm bath or putting a heating pad or hot water bottle on your abdomen or lower back and Getting more sleep, especially right before and during your period.

  • When should I see a doctor about period pain ?

    No matter if your period pain is mild or severe, you can ask your obstetrician–gynecologist (ob-gyn); or other health care professional for help. Period pain can cause you to miss school or work, or it can disrupt your everyday activities. It is especially important to get help if your pain is severe, feels worse than usual, or is making your life hard every month.

  • How are period problems treated ?

    Teens with heavy bleeding often benefit from treatment with hormone medication, such as birth control pills or a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD). If you are anemic, you may take iron pills. If your period problems are caused by a medical condition, you and your doctor should discuss treatment options for that condition.

  • What are the Common signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ?

    • Irregular menstrual periods
    • Infertility—PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility.
    • Obesity
    • Excess hair growth on the face, chest, abdomen, or upper thighs
    • Severe acne
    • Oily skin
    • Patches of thickened, velvety, darkened skin
  • What can be done to increase the chances of pregnancy in women with PCOS ?

    Successful ovulation is the first step toward pregnancy. For women who are overweight, weight loss may accomplish this goal. Medications also may be used to cause ovulation. Surgery on the ovaries has been used when other treatments do not work. But the long-term effects of these procedures are not clear.